Addysg ym Mhencaer | Education in Pencaer
Roedd rhai cyfleusterau addysgol yn bodoli yn Sir Benfro o’r 16eg ganrif ymlaen, gan gynnwys Ysgol Ramadeg yr Eglwys Gadeiriol yn Nhyddewi ac hefyd ysgolion gramadeg yn Hwlffordd, Aberteifi, Penfro, Dinbych-y-pysgod ac ymhellach i ffwrdd yng Nghaerfyrddin. Fodd bynnag, ychydig o gyfleoedd addysgol a gafodd y mwyafrif er anfonwyd meibion y cyfoethog mor bell â Bryste i gael eu haddysg.
Hyrwyddwyd yr ysgolion cyntaf i gyrraedd yr ardal gan Gymdeithas er Hyrwyddo Gwybodaeth Gristnogol a Syr John Phillips o Gastell Picton oedd un o’r aelodau sylfaenol. Roedd ei chwaer Margaret yn briod â Griffith Jones – rheithor Llanddowror. Efe ddechreuodd yr Ysgolion Cylchynol Cymraeg. Sefydlwyd yr ysgolion hyn ar draws Cymru gyfan ac, yn benodol yma yn Llanwnda a Thremarchog o 1740 ymlaen.
Yn gynnar yn y 19eg ganrif sefydlwyd ysgolion mewn ardaloedd gwledig gan Gymdeithasau Addysgol Prydain a oedd yn canolbwyntio ar blant o deuluoedd anghydffurfiol ac hefyd gan yr Ysgolion Cenedlaethol a oedd yn cael eu hyrwyddo gan Eglwys Lloegr.
Yn 1847 cyhoeddwyd adroddiad i gyflwr addysg yng Nghymru gan y Comisiwn Brenhinol. Roedd yr adroddiad yn feirniadol iawn o’r ysgolion o Dyddewi i Abergwaun. Allan o’r 21 cymuned yn yr ardal hon roedd 12 ohonynt heb gyfleusterau addysgol o gwbl. Sonnir am dair ysgol ym mhlwyf Llanwnda yn yr adroddiad yn 1847. Un ym mhentref Llanwnda, ysgol ddyddiol yng nghapel Harmoni a’r trydydd yn Wdig. Rhaid i ni gofio mai arolygwyr o Loegr oeddynt yn siarad Saesneg yn unig tra bod y ran fwyaf o blant Cymru ar y pryd yn siarad Cymraeg yn unig. Hwn oedd yr adroddiad a roddodd yr argraff o gyrhaeddiad diffygiol y plant. Cyfeirir at yr adroddiadau hyn gan y Cymry fel ‘Brad y Llyfrau Gleision’.
Erbyn 1871 ffurfiwyd Bwrdd Ysgol Henner, ac erbyn 1876 agorwyd Ysgol Henner. Costiodd yr ysgol a thŷ’r meistr £500 i’w hadeiladu. Ffynnodd yr ysgol yn syth – ysgol a oedd wedi’i dylunio i 120 o blant ond erbyn 1905 roedd 140 o blant yn mynychu’r ysgol.
Roedd cynnydd mawr yn y boblogaeth oherwydd dyfodiad y rheilffordd i Wdig. Erbyn Mai 1909 roedd 308 o blant ar lyfrau Ysgol Henner. Roedd hwn yn argyfwng ac fe benderfynwyd adeiladu ysgol newydd i ddarparu ar gyfer 350 o blant. Ar Dachwedd 11ed 1909 cafwyd adroddiad yn y ‘County Echo’ sef y papur lleol yn datgan bod darn o dir wedi’i brynu am £350 ac ar yr Awst 11ed yn yr un papur enwir John Griffiths, Phillips a Thomas fel adeiladwyr yr ysgol newydd. Agorwyd Ysgol Wdig ar Fai 9ed 1912 gan Mr Bancroft, Prif Arolygwr ei Mawrhydi ar gyfer yr ardal hon. Rhannwyd yr ysgol yn ddwy – un rhan i’r babanod a’r rhan arall i’r plant iau. Y prifathro cyntaf oedd Mr Evan Anthony gyda Miss Gertrude Hopkins yn adran y babanod. Mae’r ysgol yn dal i fod hyd heddiw ar ben rhiw Wdig yn Stop and Call. Heddiw yn 2021 mae 135 o blant yn mynychu’r ysgol. Dysgir hwy mewn 5 dosbarth gan 5 athro ac hefyd ceir cynorthwywyr dysgu yn y dosbarthiadau hefyd. Mr Jonathan Jones yw prif athro presennol yr ysgol.
Roedd yr Ysgolion Cylchynol yn dal i ymweld ac erbyn diwedd yr 1840au cynhaliwyd Ysgol Brydeinig yng nghapel Annibynnol Rhosycaerau.
Adeiladwyd Ysgol Tremarchog ym 1869. Fe’i mynychwyd gan blant o blwyfi Tremarchog, Granston a rhai o blwyf Llanwnda. Caewyd yr ysgol hon ym 1967.
Cynigiwyd addysg hefyd yn yr ysgolion Sul. Sefydlwyd Ysgol Sul Capel Harmoni ym 1828 ac un arall yng Nghapel y Methodistiaid yn Wdig ym 1830. Cymraeg oedd cyfrwng y rhan fwyaf o’r dysgu ac yn adroddiad y Comisiwn Brenhinol ar yr Eglwys yng Nghymru ym 1906 nodwyd bod gan Ysgol Sul Harmoni 12 athro a 65 o ddisgyblion ac yn Ysgol Sul Wdig roedd 14eg athro a 120ain o ddisgyblion. Yn yr un modd mynychodd 155 o ddisgyblion Ysgol Sul Capel Llangloffan.
Some educational facilities existed in Pembrokeshire from the 16th century onwards. These included the Cathedral grammar school at St. Davids and other grammar schools at Haverfordwest, Cardigan, Pembroke, Tenby and further afield at Carmarthen. There was also the opportunity for those who could afford it, to send their sons away to Bristol by ship for their education at a school. However, the vast majority had few educational facilities.
The first schools which arrived in local areas were promoted by the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge (SPCK) and Sir John Philipps of Picton Castle was a founder member of the society. He was also connected through his sister called Margaret and married to Griffith Jones the rector of Llandowror, who started the Welsh circulating schools. These circulating schools were eventually established all over Wales, but we have records that they were established at Llanwnda and St. Nicholas from 1740 onwards. There are records of attendance at these schools at various dates from 1740 through to 1776.
In the early part of the 19th century, both National schools and British Education Societies established schools in rural areas. The National schools were promoted by the Church of England and the British school societies were non-denominational and catered for children from non-conformist families.
In 1847 there was a report by the Royal Commission into the State of Education in Wales (1846-47), which was very critical of both national British and other schools in the Dewisland area from St Davids to Fishguard. Out of the 21 parishes in this area, 12 had no educational facilities at all. This 1847 report mentions three schools in Llanwnda parish, one a village school at Llanwnda village, another day school at Harmony chapel and a third day school in Goodwick. We have to remember that these inspectors were monoglot English speakers from England whereas most of the children in the schools inspected were Welsh speaking. This report gave the impression that most of the children were not achieving the standards that were expected of them. The Welsh refer to this report as ‘Treason of the Blue Books’.
By 1871 local Henner school board was formed and by 1876 Henner school was opened. The cost of building the school and the master’s house was £500. It was immediately a flourishing school designed for 120 children and by 1905 there were 140 children.
By 1909 overcrowding at Henner school had reached a crisis, because of the increase in population at Goodwick due to the railway development. By May 1909 there were 308 children on the books at Henner school and as a result it was proposed to build a new school accommodating 350 children. On the 11th November 1909 a report in the local paper the ‘County Echo’ stated that a plot of land had been purchased for £350 to build a new school. On 11th August 1910 the same newspaper was able to announce that John Griffiths, Phillips and Thomas’s tender to build the school had been accepted. Goodwick School was opened on May 9th 1912 by Mr. Bancroft, His Majesty’s Inspector of Schools for the district. The new school had two separate areas – one for the Infants and the other for the Juniors. The first headmaster was Mr Evan Anthony with Miss Gertrude Hopkins in charge of the Infants. Goodwick School still continues today at the top of Goodwick hill in Stop and Call. Today in 2021 there are 135 children on the registers, which are marked digitally online. They are taught by 5 teachers who are assisted in the classrooms by teaching assistants. Mr Jonathan Jones is the present headmaster at Goodwick School.
In St. Nicholas parish there was activity with the circulating schools and in the late 1840s a British school was held at Rhos y Caerau Independent Chapel.
In 1869 St. Nicholas national school was built largely from public subscription. Children attended from St. Nicholas and Granston parishes and may be some from Llanwnda. St Nicholas school continued until 1967.
Other education took place in Sunday schools using both church and chapel facilities. Harmony chapel Sunday school was established in 1828 and a Sunday school based on the Methodist chapel in Goodwick in 1830. In most cases Sunday schools were established and continued as part of the local chapel religious activity. Most of the instruction was in Welsh and in the Royal Commission report of the Church in Wales 1906 their records of Harmony Sunday school with 12 teachers and 65 pupils and Goodwick Sunday school with 14 teachers and 120 pupils. Similarly the Sunday school at Llangloffan Chapel with a record of 155 pupils attending.